Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Villa Eulalia, Vaucluse

Villa Eulalia, Arts and Crafts Federation style at Vaucluse NSW

[Previous post: Federation Leadlight Windows - Next post: ] 

Villa Eulalia, 1 Gilliver Avenue, Vaucluse, NSW

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Auction: Wednesday, 28 Nov 06:30 PM Contact D'Leanne Lewis Laing & Simmons 0419 676 667
Price guide: above $6 million - Source[1]

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"Cleverly combined ornate period details with the best in chic contemporary design"
“Villa Eulalia” is a uniquely sophisticated & sleek modern family home, just made for entertaining with an ideal all year round indoor & outdoor lifestyle.
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"With all living rooms opening to balconies, verandahs, enormous level lawn, sunny pool & magnificent private gardens by William Dangar, the home's iconic views & prestigious location ensure a prized family lifestyle.
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Virtual Tour:Slideshow:
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The home, on 1230 sq. meters, was once owned by FitzWilliam Wentworth, son of William Charles Wentworth, a leading figure in colonial NSW. FitzWilliam sold the property in 1906 for 112 pounds. It has had two owners since 1912, and was in original condition when the present owners bought it in 2001.
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Architect John Normyle then designed an extension and restoration to blend the ornate period features with chic modern appeal. The gardens are by landscape designer William Dangar. - Source[2]
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+ Only 2 owners since 1912.
+ Approximately 1,230sqm of sundrenched level land
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+ Flexible floorplan offers 4-5 bedroom suites, 4 ½ bathrooms
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+ Large formal living & separate formal dining rooms with feature open fireplaces
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+ Separate informal family sitting/tv room
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+ Designer open plan CaesarStone kitchen (breakfast bar tons of storage)
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+ Stunning informal family living area with floor to ceiling bi-fold doors opening to wrap-around decking & outdoor entertaining
+ Sundrenched front & rear gardens with alfresco verandahs + feature glass mosaic pool.
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+ Garaging for 3 cars, wine cellar, visitor parking & full security
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+ Sleek fusion of stone, glass, steel, timber floors, high ceilings, greenery & sunlight
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  1. ^ http://www.lsdb.com.au/pol/property/search.asp?f_propertyID=1943351&xsl=448&f_st=1&f_ct=1&f_ps=2
  2. ^ Wentworth Courier, November 7 2012, page 56, House of the week by Justine Oates.

Saturday, November 24, 2012

Federation Walls

Federation Walls

[previous page: Federation Verandahs next page: Federation Awnings]
Cavity walls became common with mass-production of bricks
Cavity walls became common with mass-production of bricks

"In the Victorian period, brick ornament was generally confined to a few string courses or cornices, but in the 1890s brickwork now began to spread into richer lintels, spandrels and columns.

Sometimes the colour of these brickwork details was enhanced by rubbing or gauging them. Occasionally they were washed with a coat of red ochre, and the jointing over-painted in white. (Tuckpointing).

A greater variety of special bricks allowed more complex mouldings to be specified in cornices and door surrounds. Conventional chimneys gave way to taller and more elaborate forms as bricklayers showed off their new skills."

"Bricks were now the cheapest building material available, delivered on the site. 

The usefulness of brick had also been extended by the adoption in the late 1890s of the cavity wall - actually two parallel brick walls with a thin air gap between them - which removed the lingering problems of insulation and watertightness experienced by nineteenth century brick walls exposed to the weather." - Early Bricks and Brickworks in South Australia

Middle Park Melbourne: Federation red brick walls with rough cast courses and tuckpointing - http://www.brickworkrestoration.com.au

Federation House in Rozelle NSW from http://www.sydneyarchitecture.com
Haberfield Brick Federation House
Note the different bricks (face bricks) on the front wall.Common bricks were used on the side walls.
Tuckpointing: here red mortar is used. The white fillets are laid out at regular spacing, which does not always coincide with the rough spacing of the joints.
Tuckpointing: here red mortar is used. The white fillets are laid out at regular spacing, which does not always coincide with the rough spacing of the joints.

flame red
flame red

"The Federation front (usually) features red face brick masonry with roughcast in the gable decorative finial panel.
  • There is a (pair of) well-detailed brick chimney(s) with rendered capital and cowls.
  • The front and side verandah has a shallow pitched concave roof with stop-chamfered timber posts and brick balustrade and piers and tessellated tile floor." - Penrith Council description of a typical Federation house

Federation Houses were usually built of tuckpointed brick with cement joinery in Sydney and other major cities, and in weatherboard where brick was not easily available. -Source, Manly Council


Tuckpointed bluestone plinth
Tuckpointed bluestone plinth
Tuckpointing is a decorative finish applied to the bric
Tuckpointed Victorian facade
Tuckpointed Victorian facade
kwork joints. The final effect is that of thin mortar joints in a colour contrasting with the brickwork. It is most commonly associated with period architectural styles including Victorian, Federation, Queen Anne and Art Nouveau.

Old brickwork becomes discoloured and soiled from applied finishes and the effects of airborne debris over time. The original mortar can deteriorate and the orginal tuckpointing may be damaged or simply falling away.

Tuckpointing is a specialised craft. It is performed when all brickwork is complete.

The structural mortar joints are raked out (excavated) to an even depth. A coloured mortar matching the brickwork colour is placed and struck flush with the surface of the wall. The thin ruled mortar lines in contrasting (white) colour are then applied to finish the job. The final effect is eye-catching and spectacular when well-done. - A&KA Brickwork Restorations

In Perth, it is recorded that front walls were built with limestone footings, and using white tuck-pointed red stretcher-bond brickwork, with stucco string-courses and sills. - Source (town of Vincent)
Rendered brick Randwick Federation house
Red-Brick Randwick 2 storey Federation semi-detached
Early construction methods in Sydney:
  • "Builders constructing such houses would usually place 2 carpenters on the property.
  • These tradesmen would set out the shape of the house, excavate the footings,
  • supervise the bricklayer as the walls went up,
  • lay the floor once that level had been reached,
  • make the windows onsite to the required size and shape (no standard sizes here),
  • hand cut the roof frame and gables and construct the roof when ready.
  • The carpenters would supervise the plumbers, internal wall plastering and ceiling linings.
  • The front brickwork was usually red in colour with the side and rear bricks being a brown coloured “common” brick."

"When renovating buildings of this age, a check should be made on the condition of the mortar, rising damp and condition of roof tiles as well as electrical wiring and ceilings. In some suburbs the buildings can be affected by soil movement cracks." - Source - Early Construction 1900-1930


Renovation Techniques

from http://www.brickworkrestoration.com.au/

While we recognize that traditional mortars consisted of mainly lime putties and sand which we can duplicate if required, Brickwork Restoration have developed a Mortar Extrusion System of Repointing and Tuck Pointing mortar joints using modern materials and techniques. The superior bonding capabilities of our modified mortar, while still allowing the required water vapour transparency, allows for a full 20 year warranty providing that there are no ongoing dampness issues.

Note that in the Aust. Standards 3700 M1 (heritage) mortars are recognized as unsuitable for any external work. The reason that they are specified in the restoration of Heritage brickwork is purely to maintain the same appearance as the mortar that was originally used. We have achieved that with the use of modern and far more durable and longer lasting products.

  1. Carefully cut back the existing mortar with 4 inch angle grinders(dust extraction units attached) and air chisels.
  2. Pressure wash to remove atmospheric grime from the brick face and any remaining original or other repointers mortar from the often uneven brick arises and any loose matter from the cut back mortar joint.
  3. Re fill those mortar joints with the appropriately coloured mortar and tool finish as close to flush with the brick face as possible. This means that our mortar is `feathered` in to the brickwork as closely as possible for that brickwork as it was originally done.
  4. Gauge and mark out every horizontal and vertical mortar joint which positions our Tuck Point lines. This allows us to position the Tuck Pointing as symmetrically as possible.
  5. Tape up for the horizontal Tuck Point lines allowing for whatever width line was originally used or has been specified. Fill and tool smooth those lines and then repeat for the vertical joints.
  6. Hand wash the finished wall face with slow running water and specific cleaning pads. This also removes any burr type edges from the base mortar and Tuck Pointing.

Heritage Listed House Repair by Brickwork Restoration

Incorrect bricks were used on the addition, (so) we colored the brickwork, then Tuck Pointed the whole. As shown you would never know there was a different brick used.
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1 This shows an addition to a heritage home with the extension being built with non matching bricks.2 Here we have our colour coating to a non matching brickface3 This displays the finished job where we have coloured the incorrect brickwork, raked out and replaced the original red base mortar and applied new Tuckpointing

Thursday, November 22, 2012

Federation Bay Windows

Federation Bay Windows

[previous page: 2-Storey Federation next page: Federation Floor and Path Tiling]Casement_Bay.gif

Bay or Bow? Randwick Queen Anne Victorian house with bay window, defined by angular cupola above it
Bay windows were a popular feature in many period and Federation-style homes.Bay windows project out from the wall and extend to the ground. 

What is a bay window?

A bay window is a series of windows assembled in a polygon shape that project outward from the face of a house.- Source: Aust Window Association FAQs

Generally composed of three individual windows with the side units at 45 degree or 30 degree angles to the wall. -Source - Stegbar
An "angle bay window" refers to the angle of departure from the plane of the wall. Source: Language of WindowsSash_Bay.gif

A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room, either square or polygonal in plan. The angles most commonly used on the inside corners of the bay are 90, 135 and 150 degrees. Wikipedia

bow window is a curved bay window. Bow windows are designed to create space by projecting beyond the exterior wall of a building, and to provide a wider view of the garden or street outside and typically combine four or more casement windows, which join together to form an arch.

Bay Windows from Freepedia

Oriel window above, and bay window below at Devon, Martin Road, Centennial Park

In 1894 the UK Building Act changed the regulations, so that windows no longer had to be flush with the exterior wall. This enabled windows to stand proud from the facade. 

The late Victorian and Edwardian period took advantage of the change in new building regulations and now presented their windows in bays. Medium and larger houses would often display double bay or bow windows. 

A bay window creates the illusion of a larger room. It also maximizes the amount of light entering a room and offers a dryer alternative to a balcony.

A bay window extrudes from a main exterior wall, forming a space framed by three or more windows. The space may be square, polygonal, or round depending on the type of structure. Traditional bay windows are built with inside angles of 90, 135 and 150 degrees, although there are many custom variations.
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History of Bay Windows

from: ehow.co.uk
Unusual double bay-windows in Haberfield

Bay windows can be found in architecture dating back to the early English Renaissance, where the idea is thought to have come from large bay rooms placed at the ends of great halls in mansions and castles.
Unusual double bay-windows in Haberfield

A surge in popularity is most notable during the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. In England, bay windows came back into style after the London Building Act of 1894 allowed a change in building regulations requiring windows to be flush with exterior walls. At the same time, bay windows began showing up in America, and became rampant in the West during the California Gold Rush.

Box Bay Window

A box bay uses a 90-degree angle to form a protruding box shape. Traditional box styles have a large bay or double-paned window flanked by a smaller window on each side. A sitting area or shelves may be added to the interior. Box bay structures are often found in kitchens as garden windows.
bay window
bay window
Curved bay window
Curved bay window
Box window
Box window

Bow Window

Randwick Oriel bay window

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8 Crescent Street Haberfield
A bow window is a softer variation of the normally angular bay window. Four or more paned segments follow a rounded semicircle pattern. 

These types of windows showed up during the Georgian period and became fashionable in Regency-style architecture. Bow windows were popular additions to English country homes because it made a person feel outdoors while in the comfort of the home.

Circle Bay Window

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A circle bay structure is a more extreme version of the bow window, joining a combination of windows together into a smooth circular area. They are often wrapped around building corners.

Circle bay windows came into vogue during the Gothic era and are popular in master bedroom suites, living rooms, and dining nooks.

Oriel Window

Oriel windows are rounded window structures built on the upper levels of a building. They are usually supported by brackets or corbels and do not reach ground level.

They originated with the idea of creating an upper-level porch area. Oriel windows became popular during the Gothic Revival and are often found in Arabian architecture, where they are called mashrabiyas.

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Haberfield Arts and Craft projecting Window
Randwick Bay Window